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v13n1 Supplement Biggs and Pritchard

Volcano Deformation Data (1900-2016) compiled by Juliet Biggs and Matthew Pritchard.

Supplement to the February 2017 (v13n1) issue of Elements.

Disclaimer: this table was not reviewed by Elements nor was the contents verified.


  • The table does not include anthropogenic deformation (e.g., related to pumping at geothermal power plants).
  • Deformation magnitudes indicate maximum and/or average displacements (horizontal or vertical for GPS, LOS in the case of InSAR, unless otherwise reported in the references), while the duration indicates the time (or best estimate of the time) that event took to unfold -- these durations are usually over-estimates because observations are not taken every second, and in a few cases we assume that the deformation is correlated with the duration of the eruption or seismic swarm which is less than the interval between observations.
  • Magnitudes are reported as a velocity per year, which is the maximum displacement divided by the duration in fraction of a year.
  • Deformation event may last for significantly less than an entire year. Deformation event is counted as being related to an eruption if there is an eruption during or immediately before/after the period of observation, or if the deformation is due to surface deposits.
  • 221 unique volcanoes are listed

Research referenced in the supplemental table

Agustan, A., F. Kimata, H. A. Abidin, and Y. E. Pamito (2010) Measuring ground deformation of the tropical volcano, Ibu, using ALOS-PALSAR, Remote Sensing Letters, 1, p. 37-44.

Agustan, A., F. Kimata, Y. E. Pamitro, H. Z. Abidin, (2012) Understanding the 2007-2008 eruption of Anak Krakatau volcano by combining remote sensing techniques and seismic data, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 14, p. 73-82

Aly, M. H., & Cochran, E. S. (2011). Spatio-temporal evolution of Yellowstone deformation between 1992 and 2009 from InSAR and GPS observations. Bulletin of volcanology, 73(9), 1407-1419.

Amelung, F., and S. Day (2002), InSAR observations of the 1995 Fogo, Cape Verde, eruption: Implications for the effects of collapse events upon island volcanoes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(12), 1606, doi:10.1029/2001GL013760.

Amelung, F., S. Jónsson, H. Zebker, and P. Segall (2000a), Widespread uplift and "trap-door" faulting on Galápagos volcanoes observed with radar interferometry, Nature, 407, 993-996, doi:10.1038/35039604.

Amelung, F., C. Oppenheimer, P. Segall, and H. Zebker (2000b), Ground deformation near Gada 'Ale volcano, Afar, observed by radar interferometry, Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 3093-3096, doi:10.1029/2000GL008497.

Amelung, F., S. H. Yun, T. R. Walter, P. Segall, and S. W. Kim (2007), Stress control of deep rift intrusion at Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, Science, 316, 1026-1030, doi:10.1126/science.1140035.

Andersohn J, Motagh M, Walter TR, Roseneau M, Kaufmann H, Oncken O (2009) Surface deformation time series and source modeling for a volcanic complex system based on satellite wide swath and image mode interferometry: The Lazufre system, central Andes. Remote Sensing of Environment 113, 2062-2075.

Anzidei, M., F. Rigussi, and S. Stramondo (2010) Current geodetic deformation of the Colli Albani volcano: A review, in The Colli Albani Volcano, Eds., R. Funiciello and G. Giordano, The Geological Society of London.

Aoki, Y., Segall, P., Kato, T., Cervelli, P., & Shimada, S. (1999). Imaging magma transport during the 1997 seismic swarm off the Izu Peninsula, Japan. Science, 286(5441), 927-930.

Aoki, Y., J. Oikawa, M. Furuya, and M. Iguchi (2008), Ground deformation of Suwanose-jima volcano as viewed from ALOS/PALSAR InSAR, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract V11B-2041.

Aoki, Y., Takeo, M., Ohminato, T., Nagaoka, Y., & Nishida, K. (2013). Magma pathway and its structural controls of Asama Volcano, Japan. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 380(1), 67-84.

Baer, G., Y. Hamiel, G. Shamir, and R. Nof (2008), Evolution of a magma-driven earthquake swarm and triggering of the nearby Oldoinyo Lengai eruption, as resolved by InSAR, ground observations and elastic modeling, East African Rift, 2007, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 272, 339-352, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2008.04.052.

Baer, G., & Hamiel, Y. (2010). Form and growth of an embryonic continental rift: InSAR observations and modelling of the 2009 western Arabia rifting episode. Geophysical Journal International, 182(1), 155-167.

Bagnardi, M., Amelung, F., & Poland, M. P. (2013). A new model for the growth of basaltic shields based on deformation of Fernandina volcano, Galágos Islands. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 377, 358-366.

Baker, S., & Amelung, F. (2012). Top-down inflation and deflation at the summit of K#lauea Volcano, Hawai `i observed with InSAR. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 117(B12). Chicago

Banks, N. G., C. Carvajal, H. Mora, and E. Tryggvason (1990), Deformation monitoring at Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia: October 1985-March 1988, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 41, 269-295, doi:10.1016/0377-0273(90)90092-T.

Bartel, B. A., M. W. Hamburger, C. M. Meertens, A. R. Lowry, and E. Corpuz (2003), Dynamics of active magmatic and hydrothermal systems at Taal Volcano, Philippines, from continuous GPS measurements, J. Geophys. Res., 108(B10), 2475, doi:10.1029/2002JB002194.

Bathke, H., and T. R. Walter (2011) Volcano and earthquake deformation at Ararat and Tendurek, eastern Turkey, shown by InSAR time series (abstract EGU2011-2242), EGU General Assembly.

Bathke H, Shirzaei M, Walter TR (2011) Inflation and deflation at the steep-sided Llaima stratovolcano (Chile) detected by using InSAR. Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L10304, doi:10.1029/2011GL047168.

Bathke, H., Sudhaus, H., Holohan, E. P., Walter, T. R., & Shirzaei, M. (2013). An active ring fault detected at Tendüolcano by using InSAR. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, 118(8), 4488-4502.

Beauducel, F., & Cornet, F. H. (1999). Collection and three-dimensional modeling of GPS and tilt data at Merapi volcano, Java. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(B1), 725-736.

Beauducel, B., P. Briole and J.-L. Froger (2000a) Volcano-wide fringes in ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar interferograms of Etna (1992-1998): Deformation or tropospheric effect? J. Geophys. Res., 105, 16391-16402.

Beauducel, B., F. Cornet, E. Suhanto, T. Duquesnoy, and M. Kasser (2000b), Constraints on magma flux from displacement data at Merapi volcano, Java, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 8193-8204, doi:10.1029/1999JB900368.

Biggs, J., InSAR Survey of the Magmatic Effects on Rift Development, ESA Changing Earth Science Network wfaa-dat.esrin.esa.int/stse/files/project/131-176-149-30_201012711725.pdf

Biggs, J., E. Anthony, and C. Ebinger (2009a), Multiple inflation and deflation events at Kenyan volcanoes, East African Rift, Geology, 37, 979-982, doi:10.1130/G30133A.1.

Biggs, J., F. Amelung, N. Gourmelen, T. Dixon (2009b), InSAR Observations of 2007 Tanzania Rifting Episode Reveals Mixed Fault and Dyke Extension in an Immature Continental Rift, Geophys. J. Int., 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2009.04262.x.

Biggs, CJ, Mothes, P., Ruiz, M., Amelung, F., Dixon, T.H., Baker, S. & Hong, S-H.. (2010) Stratovolcano growth by co-eruptive intrusion: The 2008 eruption of Tungurahua Ecuador, Geophysical Research Letters, 37, (pp. L21302-). 10.1029/2010GL044942

Biggs, J., I. D. Bastow, D. Keir, and E. Lewi (2011) Pulses of deformation reveal frequently recurring shallow magmatic activity beneath the Main Ethiopian Rift, Geochem., Geophys. and Geosys., 12, Q0AB10, doi:10.1029/2011GC003662

Biggs, J., Chivers, M., & Hutchinson, M. C. (2013a). Surface deformation and stress interactions during the 2007-2010 sequence of earthquake, dyke intrusion and eruption in northern Tanzania. Geophysical Journal International, ggt226.

Biggs, J. E. Robertson, and M. Mace (2013b) ISMER -- Active Magmatic Processes in the East African Rift: A Satellite Radar Perspective. In Remote Sensing Advances for Earth System Science (pp. 81-91) Springer, Berlin Heidelberg

Bonaccorso, A., M. Aloisi, and M. Mattia (2002), Dike emplacement forerunning the Etna July 2001 eruption modeled through continuous tilt and GPS data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(13), 1624, doi:10.1029/2001GL014397.

Bonforte, A., A. Bonaccorso, F. Guglielmino, M. Palano, and G. Puglisi (2008), Feeding system and magma storage beneath Mt. Etna as revealed by recent inflation/deflation cycles, J. Geophys. Res., 113, B05406, doi:10.1029/2007JB005334.

Borgia, A., Lanari, R., Sansosti, E., Tesauro, M., Berardino, P., Fornaro, G., Neri, M. and Murray, J.B., (2000). Actively growing anticlines beneath Catania from the distal motion of Mount Etna's decollement measured by SAR interferometry and GPS. Geophysical Research Letters, 27(20), pp.3409-3412.

Brunori, C. A., C. Bignami, S. Stramondo, and E. Bustos (2013) 20 years of active deformation on volcano caldera: Joint analysis of InSAR and AInSAR techniques, International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 23, 279-287.

Calais E., N. d'Oreye, J. Albaric, A. Deschamps, D. Delvaux, J. Deverchere, C. Ebinger, R. W. Ferdinand, F. Kervyn, A. S. Macheyeki, A. Oyen, J. Perrot, E. Saria, B. Smets, D. S. Stamps, C. Wauthier, (2008) Aseismic strain accommodation by slow slip and dyking in a youthful continental rift, East Africa, Nature, Vol 456, 11 December 2008, doi:10.1038/nature07478.

Camitz, J., F. Sigmundsson, G. Foulger, C.-H. Jahn, C. Voelksen, and P. Einarsson, Plate boundary deformation and continuing deflation of the Askja volcano, North Iceland, determined with GPS, 1987-1993, Bull. Volc., 57, 136-145, 1995.

Casagli, N., Tibaldi, A., Merri, A., Del Ventisette, C., Apuani, T., Guerri, L., Fortuny-Guasch, J. & Tarchi, D. (2009). Deformation of Stromboli Volcano (Italy) during the 2007 eruption revealed by radar interferometry, numerical modelling and structural geological field data. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 182(3), 182-200.

Casu, F., Solaro, G., Tizzani, P., Poland, M., Miklius, A., Sansosti, E., & Lanari, R. (2008). Surface deformation analysis of the Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes, Hawai`i, based on InSAR displacement time series. In 2008 Second Workshop on Use of Remote Sensing Techniques for Monitoring Volcanoes and Seismogenic Areas (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Catalão, J., Nico, G., Hanssen, R., & Catita, C. (2011). Merging GPS and atmospherically corrected InSAR data to map 3-D terrain displacement velocity. IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing, 49(6), 2354-2360.

Catita, C., Feigl, K. L., Catalão, J., Miranda, J. M., & Victor, L. M. (2005). InSAR time series analysis of the 9 July 1998 Azores earthquake. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 26(13), 2715-2729.

Cayol, V., & Cornet, F. H. (1998). Three-dimensional modeling of the 1983-1984 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise Volcano, Reunion Island. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(B8), 18025-18037.

Cayol, V., N. d'Oreye, F. Kervyn, and Goma Volcano Observatory (2007), InSAR displacements associated to the November 2006 Nyamulagira eruption, paper presented at FRINGE Workshop, Eur. Space Agency, Frascati, Italy.

Cervelli, P., M. H. Murray, P. Segall, Y. Aoki, and T. Kato (2001), Estimating source parameters from deformation data, with an application to the March 1997 earthquake swarm off the Izu Peninsula, Japan, J. Geophys. Res., 106, 11,217-11,237, doi:10.1029/2000JB900399.

Cervelli, P., P. Segall, K. Johnson, M. Lisowski, and A. Miklius (2002a), Sudden aseismic fault slip on the south flank of Kilauea volcano, Nature, 415, 1014-1018, doi:10.1038/4151014a.

Cervelli, P. F., P. Segall, F. Amelung, H. Garbeil, C. Meertens, S. Owen, A. Miklius, and M. Lisowski (2002b), The 12 September 1999 Upper East Rift Zone dike intrusion at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B7), 2150, doi:10.1029/2001JB000602.

Cervelli, P. F., T. Fournier, J. Freymueller, and J. A. Power (2006), Ground deformation associated with the precursory unrest and early phases of the January 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano, Alaska, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L18304, doi:10.1029/2006GL027219.

Cervelli, P., et al. (2010), Ground deformation pertaining to the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano, in The 2006 Eruption of Augustine Volcano, Alaska, edited by J. A. Power, M. L. Coombs, and J. T. Freymueller, U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., 1769, p. 427-452.

Chadwick, W. W., D. Geist, S. Jónsson, M. Poland, D. Johnson, and C. Meertens (2006), A volcano bursting at the seams: Inflation, faulting, and eruption at Sierra Negra volcano, Galápagos, Geology, 34, 1025-1028, doi:10.1130/G22826A.1.

Chadwick Jr, W.W., Jónsson, S., Geist, D.J., Poland, M., Johnson, D.J., Batt, S., Harpp, K.S. and Ruiz, A., (2011). The May 2005 eruption of Fernandina volcano, Galapagos: The first circumferential dike intrusion observed by GPS and InSAR. Bulletin of Volcanology, 73(6), pp.679-697.

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