Kimberlite Volcanology: Transport, Ascent, and Eruption

Kimberlite rocks and deposits are the eruption products of volatile-rich, silica-poor ultrabasic magmas that originate as small-degree mantle melts at depths in excess of 200 km. Many kimberlites are emplaced as subsurface cylindrical-to-conical pipes and associated sills and dykes. Surficial volcanic deposits of kimberlite are rare. Although kimberlite magmas have distinctive chemical and physical properties, their eruption styles, intensities and durations are similar to conventional volcanoes. Rates of magma ascent and transport through the cratonic lithosphere are informed by mantle cargo entrained by kimberlite, by the geometries of kimberlite dykes exposed in diamond mines, and by laboratory-based studies of dyke mechanics. Outstanding questions concern the mechanisms that trigger and control the rates of kimberlite magmatism.

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