Developments in Halogen Abundance and Isotope Measurements

The four stable halogens (F, Cl, Br, and I) are low-abundance elements that are widely distributed in nature. Two of the halogens, Cl and Br, each have two stable isotopes showing a range in natural isotope variation of up to a few parts per thousand. A variety of analytical techniques have been developed to determine the abundance and isotopic ratios of the halogens: these include in situ techniques for high spatial resolution studies and bulk determinations, and they have been applied to a range of materials, including whole rocks, minerals, glasses, and fluid inclusions. Here, we summarise some of the established methods for determining halogen abundances and isotopes and highlight key advances.

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