CosmoELEMENTS keeps us in touch with exciting discoveries in cosmochemistry and provides short articles that can be used in the classroom or report on the space missions carrying geochemical and mineralogical instruments.
Proposals for future articles are welcome and should be sent to the Elements Executive Editor, or to the Column Editor, Cari Corrigan, at email@example.com.
The digital age has transformed the ways by which we live and work. Surprisingly, it is still challenging to agree on a general definition of what digital really means. There is a telltale picture taken by film director Stanley Kubrick in 1946 of people in the New York City (USA) subway. In this picture, almost all the commuters are looking down and into their newspapers. If you now replace the newspapers with smartphones, then the scene might have been shot on a subway today. But there is at least one crucial difference between the two pictures: information density. A newspaper holds only a few tens of kilobytes (kB) of information, whereas a smartphone can hold up to a terabyte (TB). This is six to eight orders of magnitude more than a newspaper. Furthermore, almost all the exabytes (260) of information by humankind has become accessible to us via the internet and through our smartphones. In combination with apps, this vast amount of information is structured and tailored to all our various daily needs. This is the power and attractiveness of digital: the vastness of the information has been condensed, structured, and made accessible through digital devices such as smartphones. Hence, if we use computers solely for calculations – their initial purpose – this is not what we mean by digital.Read More
In 2019, we are celebrating the 50th anniversary of NASA’s momentous Apollo expeditions to the Moon. The samples brought back by the astronauts, and the fieldwork those astronauts performed on the lunar surface, cemented the Moon’s status as the cornerstone of the solar system. It is not an exaggeration to say that the Apollo expeditions transformed our understanding of our solar system, and, in fact, most of the discoveries made in planetary science since the 1960s can trace directly, or indirectly, from the scientific results of those Apollo expeditions.Read More
The Apollo program was the seminal moment in modern human history and the crowning technological achievement of the 20th century. In addition to the obvious historical, cultural, and technological significance of the Apollo program, scientific results from the Apollo lunar samples have had a lasting impact on a range of scientific fields, none more so than on the fields of planetary science and cosmochemistry. Over the past five decades, studies of these lunar samples have yielded significant insights into planetary bodies throughout the solar system. Despite the Apollo samples being a static collection, recent and ongoing studies continue to make new significant discoveries. Here, we will discuss the collection, curation, and study of the Apollo lunar samples and look forward to some expected new developments in the coming years.Read More
When one mentions the word “geology”, most people will likely think of volcanoes, glaciers, or majestic mountain ranges. Beginning in the late 18th century with the work of pioneering Scottish geologist James Hutton (1726–1797), uniformitarianism emerged as a central tenet of geology and remained so well into the 20th century. Central to the idea of uniformitarianism is the concept of gradualism, whereby processes throughout time occur at the same or similar rates, leading to the famous concept that “The present is the key to the past.”Read More
Naturally occurring iron metal is exceedingly rare on the surface of the Earth. Thus, it is little wonder that civilizations dating back thousands of years used iron meteorites—naturally occurring alloys of Fe, Ni, Co and a variety of trace elements—to manufacture knives, fishhooks, adzes, and amulets, among other objects. Perhaps the best known of these is the meteoritic metal blade of a dagger found with the mummified body of King Tutankhamun (Egypt’s 18th dynasty boy pharaoh who ruled ~1332–1323 BC). Unfortunately, the rarity of these materials typically makes it impossible to apply destructive techniques that might allow researchers to not only confirm a meteorite origin, but also identify the meteorite used during manufacturing. Fortunately, the inhabitants of what is today the central United States produced meteorite artifacts in abundance, allowing for the kind of analyses that provides clues to 2,000-year-old trade routes.Read More
Molten glass rained down from the sky over parts of Southeast Asia, Australia, Antarctica, and into the neighbouring ocean basins during the Pleistocene, about 790,000 years ago. These glass occurrences, long recognized to be remnants of melt formed during meteorite impact, are known as the Australasian tektites. Their distribution defines the largest of at least four known strewn fields across the globe, strewn fields being regions over which tektite glass are scattered from what are thought to be single-impact events. The three other big tektite strewn fields are associated with known source craters, including the Bosumtwi (1.07 Ma, Ghana), Ries (15 Ma, Germany), and Chesapeake Bay (35.5 Ma, USA) impact structures. At only 790,000 years old, the Australasian tektite strewn field is both the youngest and the largest known. Despite much effort, the source crater has yet to be discovered. The search to locate it represents something akin to a “holy grail” in impact cratering studies.Read More
When our Solar System was just an infant, thousands of small early planets formed in just a few million years (Scherstén et al. 2006). Some grew to hundreds of kilometers in diameter as they swept up pebbles, dust, and gas within the swirling solar nebula. Heat from the decay of short-lived radioactive isotope 26Al was trapped and, in some cases, melted the planetesimal interiors. The molten interiors quickly differentiated: denser material settled to their centers, leaving lighter silicates to cool into thick mantles that surrounded metal cores (e.g. Weiss and Elkins-Tanton 2013).Read More
When looking at other terrestrial planetary bodies of the Solar System, such as our Moon, Mars, Mercury or the asteroids, it is obvious that impact craters are the dominant geological features to be seen on their surfaces. On Earth, however, impact craters are not so obvious and, in most cases, they are hard to spot. Our planet is geologically active. Its surface is constantly altered by plate tectonics and erosion and is largely covered by oceans and (densely) vegetated areas, making the identification of impact craters difficult. In addition, on Earth, an impact crater cannot be recognized, like on other planetary bodies, based only on its morphological characteristics because circular features can be formed by a variety of completely different geological processes (e.g. volcanism, salt diapirism, etc.)Read More
In May 2011, NASA selected the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security–Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission as the third of its New Frontiers program missions. The previous, yet ongoing, two New Frontiers missions are New Horizons—which explored Pluto during a flyby in July 2015 and is on its way for a flyby of Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69 on 1 January 2019—and Juno—an orbiting mission that is studying the origin, evolution, and internal structure of Jupiter. The OSIRIS-REx spacecraft departed for near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V 411 evolved expendable launch vehicle at 7:05 p.m. eastern daylight time (EDT) on 8 September 2016 for a seven-year journey to return samples from Bennu. Bennu is an Earth-crossing asteroid that has an orbital semi-major axis of 1.1264 AU, which is greater than that of the Earth, but a perihelion distance of 0.89689 AU, less than the Earth’s aphelion distance.Read More
Collisions between planetary bodies (such as asteroids colliding with one another or with planets) have played a role in the geologic evolution of our Solar System since the formation of planetesimals, the earliest kilometer-scale bodies. Shock damage from collisional impacts leaves evidence on surviving planetary materials that range in scale from kilometer-sized craters to nanometer-sized mineral structural defects.Read More